Brine Recycling

Technology

Improved and redesigned existing technologies were combined to create a efficient and robust system. Solar concentrators designed for lower maintenance and higher efficiency. 

Film covered evaporation pond redesigned for higher efficiency. Multi-stage electrolysis of a pre-heated solution.  

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Use solar for brine processing

Solar concentration, improved evaporation processes, hydrometallurgy techniques (electrolysis, chemical sedimentation). The use of solar energy will allow for the environmentally friendly recycling of brine. 

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Markets

Agriculture (clean water, potassium through NPK fertilizer).
Industrial (clean water, hydrogen).
Chemical traders (magnesium derivatives, chloride, hypochlorite).
Metal manufacturers (magnesium products).
Plastic manufacturers (chloride products, caustic soda).
Municipalities and other (Sodium Hypochlorite - water, pools, sewage, disinfection). 


 

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Solar collector

Designed to heat the brine to 120-130 degrees Celsius at a pressure of 0.02-0.025 MPa. Consisting of parabolic-cylindrical reflectors connected in series, with a tracking system for the sun, and pumping equipment.

In the primary circuit, brine can circulate (the system works in the daytime), 24 hours work with a closed primary circuit is possible with adjustment to the design (not in current version). 

The brine is pumped from the receiving intermediate receiver to the heater input. Next, the brine enters the processing unit (evaporation) of the concentrate. 

Processing unit pond

The concentrate processing unit is a specially designed pond that can be effectively used for evaporation of brine of various origins - natural brine, concentrates of reverse osmosis membranes, liquid industrial and energy waste.

The unit is capable of producing condensate (distilled water) and a mixture of salts contained in the initial brine in solid form. The unit uses solar radiation to maintain a stable evaporation temperature that is pumped into a flat tray so that the brine is exposed to direct sunlight.

To prevent convective entrainment of heat from the unit, it is covered by a material transparent in the visible and near infrared range. The steam generated from the evaporated brine is forced to a condenser, where it condensates.

Electrolysis 

Electrolysis is often used for copper and other metals manufacturing. With different adjustments (different voltages), variety of metals will precipitate after they have gone through the ponds. All solutions will be already heated. A catalyst with a copper layer improves the efficiency of the technique further.

The Electrolysis is applied in several stages as the solution moves through the pond (which is subdivided into different sections).

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Advantages

No moisture condensation on translucent surfaces, reduction of solar radiation losses.

Low spurious heat transfer, higher efficiency.

Takes less space than traditional evaporation based systems. 

Possibility of selective sedimentation of salts (also reagent less).

Low complexity of unloading solid salt (low labor requirements). 

Pilot

Currently constructing a pilot in Sharjah for optimization of equipment and automation. Qarn Alam water analysis played a part in the design. Pilot at the University of Nizwa is in discussion with water from the Qarn Alam field. Pilot in Nizwa will be larger in scope.

Nizwa Pilot goals:
1. Validate extraction efficiency with the source water.
2. Ensure that all integration facilities are performing as expected.
3. Evaluate the production volumes of H2 from various electroliers and test the Hydrogen conversion to Liquid to enable H2 transportation (In collaboration with Ejaad) Calculations and preliminary studies were done on the water from the PDO Qarn Alam field.

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Large scale project 

In case of successful pilot project (through achieving the goals), Adwaa Zohal would like to have the priority to develop the largescale project.
• $300M. Investment (approx., depends on the exact processing quantity and pilot results).
• 6-7 year payback.
• Open to 50% participation from outside investors (MDO, PDO).
• 6 Sq.Km of land (final depends on the exact quantities) • Open to a variety of PSA agreement. 


Key Drivers for: Brine Recycling, and Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC)

1. Convert Produced Water, which is a liability right now, to a resource.
2. Implement circular economy principals. Proposing a multiple revenue stream, as a new approach for opportunity realization, (the conventional concepts are not commercial to be implemented).
3. With the current indicators of water production growth, this project will extend the life of oil fields, as water disposal cost will be eliminated, hence, more reserves and revenues. PSA agreement can even yield additional revenue.